Cholera cases witnessed a significant surge last year, with preliminary data from the World Health Organization (WHO) reporting 4,000 cholera deaths and 667,000 cases globally. These numbers surpassed those recorded in 2022, leading the WHO to classify the global resurgence of cholera as a grade 3 emergency, indicating its highest internal health emergency level.
Among the most severely impacted regions were Malawi and Haiti, where cholera outbreaks resulted in 1,771 and 1,156 deaths, respectively, marking the worst outbreak in Malawi’s history. The gravity of the situation has overwhelmed the health systems of affected countries, according to Machinda Marongwe, the program director of Oxfam in Southern Africa, who described the outbreak as spiraling into an uncontrollable health crisis.
Since the beginning of 2024, at least 30 other countries have reported cholera cases. Zambia, in particular, has seen a sharp increase, reporting 7,500 new cases since October, with 500 new cases and 17 deaths recorded in a single 24-hour period. The Zambian president, Hakainde Hichilema, has called for people to move out of towns and back to rural areas, with schools remaining closed to prevent further spread. Reports of unrest, fueled by disinformation about the outbreak, have emerged from neighboring Mozambique, where violent incidents have resulted in loss of life.
Governments and agencies in the affected region are urgently seeking funding to implement activities and projects that improve hygiene and access to clean water, crucial elements in the fight against the spread of cholera. Cholera, a bacterial disease transmitted through contaminated water and food, leads to profuse diarrhea and vomiting.
The WHO has assessed the risk level of the disease as “very high” due to its spread to new countries and a global shortage of cholera vaccines. Gavi, an international vaccine alliance, had previously anticipated this shortage to persist until at least 2025. The outbreak has been further exacerbated by natural disasters and floods, with eastern Africa experiencing devastating flooding last year, intensified by the ongoing climate crisis.
The global resurgence of cholera poses a formidable challenge, especially in regions already grappling with strained health systems, natural disasters, and socio-economic vulnerabilities. The alarming numbers reported by the World Health Organization (WHO) highlight the urgent need for coordinated international efforts to address the crisis.
Malawi and Haiti, experiencing their worst outbreaks, illustrate the severity of the situation. The overwhelming impact on health systems in these countries, as described by Oxfam’s Machinda Marongwe, underscores the critical need for immediate and targeted interventions. The outbreak’s spread to at least 30 other countries, including the significant rise in cases in Zambia, further emphasizes the urgency of a robust and collective response.
The situation in Zambia, where the president has called for rural relocation amid school closures, reflects not only the health crisis but also the broader societal challenges associated with preventing the spread of the disease. Disinformation and unrest in neighboring Mozambique illustrate the multifaceted nature of the crisis, where public health emergencies can be exacerbated by misinformation and social unrest.
Immediate funding is essential to implement activities and projects that address the root causes of cholera, focusing on improving hygiene practices and ensuring access to clean water. The WHO’s assessment of the risk level as “very high” emphasizes the critical nature of the ongoing outbreak. The shortage of cholera vaccines, expected to last until 2025, further complicates the response, highlighting the need for innovative solutions and increased production capacities.
Natural disasters and climate-related events, such as the devastating flooding in eastern Africa, have intensified the outbreak, showcasing the interconnectedness of health and environmental challenges. As the world faces the ongoing climate crisis, efforts to address waterborne diseases like cholera must be integrated into broader climate adaptation and resilience strategies.
The global community must unite to provide the necessary resources, both financial and logistical, to support affected countries in controlling and ultimately eliminating cholera. Collaboration between governments, international organizations, and local communities is essential to build robust health systems, enhance surveillance capabilities, and implement preventive measures.
The cholera outbreak serves as a stark reminder of the vulnerabilities in our global health infrastructure and the imperative to strengthen preparedness and response mechanisms. As the international community addresses the immediate crisis, there is a broader opportunity to invest in sustainable solutions that promote health equity, resilience, and the well-being of communities worldwide.