As a result of the civil war in Sudan, five million people have been forced from their homes. Sudan is currently dealing with a rapidly worsening humanitarian crisis as a result of months of intense warfare between the military and a competing paramilitary organization.
This amount, which was released by the International Organization for Migration, reflects a humanitarian warning that was issued by the primary refugee agency of the United Nations (UNHCR), which stated that more than one billion dollars would be required to sustain individuals who were fleeing the violence into neighboring countries.
Since fighting broke out in the middle of April between the Sudanese army, led by Gen. Abdel Fattah al-Burhan, and the rival Rapid Support Forces (RSF), led by Mohamed Hamdan Dagalo, also known as Hemedti, the IOM estimates that more than 4 million people have been displaced within their own country as a result of the conflict.
According to the organization, an additional 1.1 million individuals had fled to neighboring countries, with more than 750,000 of them heading to either Egypt or Chad.
It was stated that over 24.7 million Sudanese, which is approximately half of the country’s population, were in need of humanitarian help and protection.
The efforts of international organisations to mediate the dispute have so far been unsuccessful. At least nine such ceasefire deals have been attempted, but none of them have been successful. Meanwhile, the obstruction of trade routes has led to a worsening shortage of food, water, medicines, and fuel, which has also contributed to an increase in costs.
The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) issued an appeal for one billion dollars on Tuesday in order to offer necessary aid and protection to more than 1.8 million refugees who are likely to arrive in five neighboring countries by the end of 2023. This number represents a twofold increase over what it previously estimated in May.
“The crisis has triggered crucial demand for humanitarian assistance,” said Mamadou Dian Balde, the regional bureau director for United Nations High Commissioner for the Refugees (UNHCR) for the east and Horn of Africa and Great Lakes region. “Those arriving in border areas of the country find themselves in desperate conditions due to inadequate services, along with poor infrastructure, and limited access,” he added.
“Partners in this response are making every possible effort to support those who are arriving and their hosts. However, in the event that there are not sufficient donor resources, these efforts will be severely limited.”
According to Balde’s assessment, the health of newly arrived refugees in the Central African Republic, Chad, Egypt, Ethiopia, and South Sudan is in a critical state. This includes high rates of malnutrition as well as outbreaks of disease such as cholera and measles.
“It is deeply upsetting to receive news of children dying from diseases and that are entirely preventable,” said Balde, “especially when partners did not have sufficient resources.”
When long-simmering tensions within the military finally erupted into open battle approximately four and a half months ago, Sudan was thrown into complete anarchy. As a result of the fighting, the capital city of Sudan, Khartoum, has been turned into an urban battlefield, although neither side has been able to take control of the city.
In the meantime, the conflict has evolved into ethnic violence in the western Darfur region, which was the site of a genocide campaign in the early 2000s. According to rights groups and the United Nations, the Rapid Support Force (RSF) and associated Arab militias have been attacking ethnic African populations.
Late in the month of June, formal peace negotiations that were being mediated by the United States and Saudi Arabia in the seaside town of Jeddah in the kingdom were suspended after both mediators publicly called out the Royal Saudi Forces (RSF) and the army for constantly violating truces.